Category Archives: publication

Using explosive percolation in analysis of real-world networks

R. K. Pan, M. Kivelä, J. Saramäki, K. Kaski, J. Kertész

We apply a variant of the explosive percolation procedure to large real-world networks and show with finite-size scaling that the university class, ordinary or explosive, of the resulting percolation transition depends on the structural properties of the network, as well as the number of unoccupied links considered for comparison in our procedure. We observe that in our social networks, the percolation clusters close to the critical point are related to the community structure. This relationship is further highlighted by applying the procedure to model networks with predefined communities.

Physical Review E 83, 046112

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Small but slow world: How network topology and burstiness slow down spreading

M. Karsai, M. Kivelä, R. K. Pan, K. Kaski, J. Kertész, A.-L. Barabási, J. Saramäki

While communication networks show the small-world property of short paths, the spreading dynamics in them turns out slow. Here, the time evolution of information propagation is followed through communication networks by using empirical data on contact sequences and the susceptible-infected model. Introducing null models where event sequences are appropriately shuffled, we are able to distinguish between the contributions of different impeding effects. The slowing down of spreading is found to be caused mainly by weight-topology correlations and the bursty activity patterns of individuals.

Physical Review E 83, 025102(R)

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Characterizing the Community Structure of Complex Networks

A. Lancichinetti, M. Kivelä, J. Saramäki, S. Fortunato

Community structure is one of the key properties of complex networks and plays a crucial role in their topology and function. While an impressive amount of work has been done on the issue of community detection, very little attention has been so far devoted to the investigation of communities in real networks. We present a systematic empirical analysis of the statistical properties of communities in large information, communication, technological, biological, and social networks. We find that the mesoscopic organization of networks of the same category is remarkably similar. This is reflected in several characteristics of community structure, which can be used as “fingerprints” of specific network categories. While community size distributions are always broad, certain categories of networks consist mainly of tree-like communities, while others have denser modules. Average path lengths within communities initially grow logarithmically with community size, but the growth saturates or slows down for communities larger than a characteristic size. This behaviour is related to the presence of hubs within communities, whose roles differ across categories. Also the community embeddedness of nodes, measured in terms of the fraction of links within their communities, has a characteristic distribution for each category. Our findings are verified by the use of two fundamentally different community detection methods.

PloS ONE 5 (8), e11976

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A comparative study of social network models: Network evolution models and nodal attribute models

R. Toivonen, L. Kovanen, M. Kivelä, J.-P. Onnela, J. Saramäki, K. Kaski

This paper reviews, classifies and compares recent models for social networks that have mainly been published within the physics-oriented complex networks literature. The models fall into two categories: those in which the addition of new links is dependent on the (typically local) network structure (network evolution models, NEMs), and those in which links are generated based only on nodal attributes (nodal attribute models, NAMs). An exponential random graph model (ERGM) with structural dependencies is included for comparison. We fit models from each of these categories to two empirical acquaintance networks with respect to basic network properties. We compare higher order structures in the resulting networks with those in the data, with the aim of determining which models produce the most realistic network structure with respect to degree distributions, assortativity, clustering spectra, geodesic path distributions, and community structure (subgroups with dense internal connections). We find that the nodal attribute models successfully produce assortative networks and very clear community structure. However, they generate unrealistic clustering spectra and peaked degree distributions that do not match empirical data on large social networks. On the other hand, many of the network evolution models produce degree distributions and clustering spectra that agree more closely with data. They also generate assortative networks and community structure, although often not to the same extent as in the data. The ERGM model, which turned out to be near-degenerate in the parameter region best fitting our data, produces the weakest community structure.

Social Networks 31(4), p. 240–254

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Sequential algorithm for fast clique percolation

J. Kumpula, M. Kivelä, K. Kaski, J. Saramäki

In complex network research clique percolation, introduced by Palla, Derényi, and Vicsek [Nature (London) 435, 814 (2005)], is a deterministic community detection method which allows for overlapping communities and is purely based on local topological properties of a network. Here we present a sequential clique percolation algorithm (SCP) to do fast community detection in weighted and unweighted networks, for cliques of a chosen size. This method is based on sequentially inserting the constituent links to the network and simultaneously keeping track of the emerging community structure. Unlike existing algorithms, the SCP method allows for detecting k-clique communities at multiple weight thresholds in a single run, and can simultaneously produce a dendrogram representation of hierarchical community structure. In sparse weighted networks, the SCP algorithm can also be used for implementing the weighted clique percolation method recently introduced by Farkas et al. [New J. Phys. 9, 180 (2007)]. The computational time of the SCP algorithm scales linearly with the number of k-cliques in the network. As an example, the method is applied to a product association network, revealing its nested community structure.

Physical Review E 78, 026109

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Generalizations of the clustering coefficient to weighted complex networks

J. Saramäki, M. Kivelä, J.-P. Onnela, K. Kaski, J. Kertész

The recent high level of interest in weighted complex networks gives rise to a need to develop new measures and to generalize existing ones to take the weights of links into account. Here we focus on various generalizations of the clustering coefficient, which is one of the central characteristics in the complex network theory. We present a comparative study of the several suggestions introduced in the literature, and point out their advantages and limitations. The concepts are illustrated by simple examples as well as by empirical data of the world trade and weighted coauthorship networks.

Physical Review E 75, 027105

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